Situated along the escarpments of the Great Rift Valley, Nakuru is the fourth-largest urban area in Kenya after Nairobi, Mombasa and Kisumu. It is the current capital of Nakuru county and former headquarters of Rift Valley Province.
According to the recently conducted population census, Nakuru is home to 570,674 inhabitants and lies about 1,850 m above sea level. It is a choice destination for many holiday goers due to its picturesque attractions as well as an ideal settling place for persons intending to settle and raise family due to its serene and tranquil environment as well as abundance of social amenities such as schools, hospitals, housing, shopping centers and recreation spots.
History of Nakuru Town
Nakuru’s history is colorful and splendid and can perhaps be traced back to the prehistoric period mostly due to the archeological findings located around 8 kilo meters from Nakuru town at the Hyrax Hill reserve.
Nakuru , derives its name from the Maasai speaking people of Kenya and was established by the British colonialists as part of the White highlands during the colonial era and has continued growing into a cosmopolitan town ever since. It received township status in 1904 and became a municipality in 1952.
The history of Kenya as a country is closely intertwined with that of Nakuru as a town and a district that is now a county. This is because,the first and second presidents of Kenya, Mzee Jomo Kenyatta and Daniel Arap Moi, maintained their semi-official residences within Nakuru town.
When the Kenya-Uganda railway line was constructed, although heavily criticized as the Lunatic Express or a road to nowhere, it had a profound impact in the creation the nation today known as Kenya.
As the nation grew, Nakuru Town also developed out of the activities of the railroad as it was one of the major stopovers that encouraged growth of business centres along the railway from Mombasa en route for Kisumu.
Nakuru County was among the area that was annexed as white highlands, where many colonialists chose to settle.
From then on, Nakuru quickly transformed into a big town which later was to become the headquarters of the Rift Valley Province, serving as the nerve centre for other 14 counties in the region.
Actually it is very much easy and convenient to get to any part of Rift Valley or the entire nation from Nakuru. From Nakuru Town to other regional headquarters in the country with the exception of Mombasa is two and half hours’ drive.
This quality makes Nakuru County the pearl of Rift Valley and indeed the entire nation.
The County sits at the centre of the great road from Mombasa to Nairobi all the way through Nyanza opening Kenya to East and Central Africa, thus Nakuru is strategically located and favorable for investors, a factor that gives this county a great impetus for great socio-economic growth.
Climatic conditions in Nakuru
Lying 1850 meters above sea level, Nakuru tends to experience similar climatic conditions to Nairobi, albeit colder. Like most rift valley towns, Nakuru enjoys a temperate climate throughout the year though temperatures fall significantly at night and during the cold season of June to August. The city has a lovely warm-summer Mediterranean climate.
Nakuru’s Economic activities
Despite being an upcoming major town, Nakuru prides itself for having a strong economy. Its strong economy can be attributed to the following:
Agriculture, manufacturing and tourism are the backbones of Nakuru’s economy. The town and its environs is known for its vast agricultural potential with numerous small farms and also vast agricultural enterprises where most farmers sell their produce. The main crops grown around Nakuru and sold and out of the town entail coffee, wheat, barley, maize, beans and potatoes.
After harvesting, the crops are stored in massive silos situated in the outskirts of the town by the National Cereals and Produce Board. The crops provide the primary raw material for the numerous manufacturing industries found in Nakuru and Nairobi. These industries include flour milling and grain ginneries.
Dairy farming is also a key economic activity and provides the inputs for the various milk processing plants around the city.
Other manufacturing industries include Menengai soap factory, Car&General Motorcycle plant, Eveready Battery plant, Fertiplant East Africa among many others.
The city is also renowned for being the home of Kenya’s largest retail supermarket chains. Nakumatt, Naivas, Tuskys, and Gilanis supermarkets were all founded in the Nakuru.
The city is also a centre for various retail businesses that provide goods and services to the manufacturing and agricultural sectors.
According to a UN study released in 2011, Nakuru is Africa’s fastest-growing city and the fourth in the world.
Amenities in Nakuru
Nakuru town, is one of the oldest towns in Kenya. This has given it plenty of time to develop into the modern urban center that it is. And being the urban center that it is, Nakuru has over time had to expand its amenities to support its ever growing population, as well as visitors to the region. Let’s take a look at some of Nakuru’s amenities:
Schools in Nakuru
Being an important educational center, Nakuru is home to a large number of popular educational institutions renowned for their academic prowess. It features universities, colleges, secondary and primary schools. Therefore, if you intend to buy or rent a home in Nakuru, it is quite evident that you will be spoilt for choice.
Nakuru entails universities such as Egerton University (public), University of Nairobi, Laikipia University, Mount Kenya University, Kenya Methodist University, Jomo Kenyatta University for Science and Technology, Kabarak University (private) and colleges such as Rift Valley Institute of Technology, Kenya Industrial Training Institute (KITI) and the Kenya Institute of Management (KIM), Institute of Advanced Technology (IAT), and Kenya Institute of Biomedical Sciences and Technology (KIBSAT).
Nakuru town also entails both public and private primary and secondary schools such as Molo Academy (both primary and secondary), Carol Academy, Nakuru Boys High School, Nakuru Girls High school, Menengai High School and Nakuru day secondary school among others.
In the spirit of education, Nakuru also has a well-stocked public library run by the Kenya National Library Service. The Library is usually situated along Moses Mudavadi road a short distance from the town center.
Hospitals in Nakuru
When it comes to hospitals, Nakuru Town will never run short. It has quite a number of modern state of the art hospitals that you can go to incase of any medical emergency. These hospitals include:
- Nakuru Hospital (previously the biggest hospital in Rift Valley Province)
- Nakuru War Memorial Hospital (opened shortly after World War1by Norman Jewell to tend to injured to troops of both African and European descent.
- Rift Valley Provincial General Hospital
There are also branches of major hospitals such as:
- Mediheal Group of Hospitals;
- Karen Hospital;
- Aga Khan University Hospital;
Transport systems in Nakuru
From the above foregoing, it is quite evident that Nakuru is one of the oldest towns in Kenya. It is therefore expected that it entails well developed transport systems as compared to most other towns in the country. True to the averment, Nakuru boasts of well-developed transport systems such as:
Nakuru is home a number of airstrips such as Lanet Airstrip and Kabarak Airstrip which is situated 20 kilo meters away from the city center. The former was approved in 2017 for upgrade to an international airport by the Ministry of Transport.
Therefore, whenever you need to jet out quickly, you need not worry, Nakuru offers the whole package.
Being the most popular transport system in the town, Nakuru has a well- developed transport system that links it to the rest of the country making movement of people, goods and investors quite easy.
This has impacted highly on the tremendous development of Nakuru. And as the government keeps on building good transport systems in Nakuru, lots of economic and social development is bound to happen which will open up the town, thus giving it a competitive edge over other developing towns in the country.
Nakuru also boasts of having The Rift Valley Railways. A narrow gauge track runs through the city with a railway station located on the edge of the CBD. It connects to cities of Nairobi and Mombasa to the east and Kisumu and Eldoret to the west.
Currently, the government is currently extending the modern standard gauge railway from Nairobi to Nakuru and further on to Kisumu with a brand new station planned for the city.
Sports and sporting activities in Nakuru town
Besides trading and tourism Nakuru’s inhabitants also seem to enjoy sporting activities. In that regard, the town boasts of a couple of stadia which facilitate sporting activities in the town. Take a look:
Afraha Stadium is a multi-purpose stadium in Nakuru, Kenya. It mostly hosts football matches and is the home stadium of Nakuru AllStars of the Kenyan Premier League and Ulinzi Stars of the Kenyan Premier League. The stadium holds 8,200 people and opened in 1948. The stadium is situated two kilometres from the famous Lake Nakuru National Park.
Rift Valley Sports Club
The Rift Valley Sports Club lies in the centre of the city. The club was started in 1907 by white European settlers who had settled in Nakuru in the early 1900s. A number of sporting activities are hosted at this club and popular among them is cricket.
Nakuru athletics club
The city hosts an annual rugby festival dubbed “The Great Rift 10-a-side” which features teams from across the East Africa region. It is religiously held at the Nakuru Athletics Club.
It is also one of six cities to host a leg of the national rugby sevens circuit, an extremely popular event held at the athletics club and attracting thousands of fans nationwide. Nakuru’s leg is referred to as the prinsloo sevens and its popularity and party atmosphere it brings to the city has contributed to Nakurus moniker as Nax Vegas
List of estates located in Nakuru town
It is a middle-class estate that is located near the Central Business District. The estate is located next to the Lake Nakuru National Park which is a key tourist attraction site in the region.
Milimani is a posh estate that is dominated by the rich and mighty in Nakuru. Rent in this estate is expensive, owing to the posh buildings and mansions located in the area. It is also one of the safest estates in Nakuru.
It is located approximately one kilometer from Nakuru town. It is one of the estates with proper infrastructure and sanitation. Many would agree that estate enjoys the privilege of being close to Nakuru state house. Section 58 is also among the safest estates in Nakuru.
This estate is located along the Nakuru- Nyahururu highway. It is home to the middle class in Nakuru. It is situated at the foot of Menengai Crater. A one bedroom house in this area will cost you around 6,000 to 10,000 shillings, while single rooms go for 2,000 to 4,000 Kenyan shillings.
5.Langa Langa estate
It is a middle-class estate, with most houses being personally owned. Most houses located here are two and three bedroom houses. For as low as 8,000 shillings, you can get a nice two bedroom house.
It is a lower-middle-class estate that is mostly inhabited by small-scale businessmen and women. A two bedroom house here goes for as low as 7,000 Kenyan shillings.
It is among the middle-class estates located in Nakuru, approximately three kilometers from the Central Business District. A two bedroom house is between 8,000-10,000, one bedroom around 6,000 shillings while single rooms go for as low as 1500 shillings.
The estate is located along the Nairobi-Nakuru highway, approximately five kilometres from Nakuru town. This estate is a bit posh, owing to the magnificent buildings that dot the area. Security is also tight, thanks to the police dog training unit located in this estate.
Bahati estate is located along the Nakuru-Nyahururu road, approximately 10 kilometres from Nakuru town. It is one of the most fertile areas in Nakuru that is rich in agricultural land. Most houses here are personally owned, with a few going up for rental.
Lanet would definitely top the list of the most secure estates in Nakuru. The estate boasts of the Lanet barracks and airstrip that is used by the military personnel. Movement in this estate is highly restricted by the military officers. Lanet is located approximately five kilometres from Nakuru town.
Other estates in Nakuru include;
Key attractions in Nakuru
1. Lake Nakuru National Park
The park is located approximately four kilometres from Nakuru town centre. The park features about 550 different plant species, picturesque landscape, a variety of wildlife species, hills and waterfalls. It is one of the best parks for camping and game viewing and hiking activities.
2. Hell’s Gate National Park
The park is located in Naivasha. It features beautiful sceneries of towering cliffs, stark rock towers, water-gouged gorges, scrub-clad volcanoes, hot springs, belching plumes of geothermal steam, wildlife such as zebras, gazelles, buffalos, cheetahs, leopards and lions. Major activities one can engage in at the park include; camping, bird watching, biking, game viewing, hiking, horse riding and rock climbing.
3. Mount Longonot National Park
It is located approximately 90 kilometres from Nairobi, just close to Hell’s Gate National Park. Unique attractions at the park include the crater forest and the extinct volcano of Mount Longonot. Other major attractions include wildlife such as; buffaloes, zebras, lions, giraffes, gazelles, elands and different species of birds. One can engage in rock climbing activities, biking, camping and hiking at the park.
4. Menengai Crater
It is situated 10 kilometres north of Nakuru, off the Nyahururu- Nakuru main road. It is the second largest volcanic crater in the world, standing at about 2,490 metres high. It features beautiful caves, camping sites, nature trails, picnic spots and beautiful viewpoints. Activities to engage in at the crater include; hiking, camping, trekking, biking photography and picnicking.
5. Hyrax Hill Pre-historic site and Museum
The site is located approximately four kilometres from Nakuru town, off the Nakuru-Nairobi highway. The site depicts the lifestyle of seasonal settlement by prehistoric people, about 3,000 years old. It is also a renowned archaeological research area and a reference point for the prehistory of East Africa. Major attractions within the prehistoric site include; an excavation site, a tortoise pit, picnic site, camping site, nature trail and viewpoints of Lake Nakuru.
6. Kigio Wildlife Conservancy
It is a community-owned wildlife conservancy located in Gilgil. It was established in 1997 and covers an area of 3,500 acres. The conservancy features over 100 indigenous plant species, different bird species, animals such as the African buffalo, common eland, waterbuck, gazelles, zebras, hyenas, leopards, hippopotamus, caracal, honey badger and the spring hare. It is a perfect place for game viewing activities.
7. Kariandusi Pre-historic Site
The site is situated on the Nakuru-Elementaita basin, about 2 kilometres to the east side of Lake Elementaita. Attractions within the site include; a campsite, nature trail, archaeological site, picnic site, bird watching, museum exhibition hall, the gorge and a monumental church building.
8. Crescent Island Game Conservancy
It is a game conservancy located in Lake Naivasha. It is home to abundant wildlife such as zebras, giraffes, hippopotamus, vervet monkeys, antelopes, gazelles, different species of birds, snakes and wildebeests, impalas and elands. It is also a perfect camping and picnic site.
9. Lake Elementaita
It is a small soda lake located near Gilgil town. Its beautiful shores are grazed by zebras, antelopes, gazelles, impalas and a variety of reptiles. Flamingos can also be found at the Lake, though not a good number like in Lake Nakuru. The Lake provides beautiful sceneries for bird watching, family walks, game viewing and camping.
10. Lake Naivasha
It is a fresh water lake found in the Great Rift Valley. It features serene surroundings and beautiful sceneries perfect for bird watching and picnic activities. Hippopotamuses can also be spotted on the shores of the lake.
- Lord Egerton Castle
- Lake Oloiden
- Ol Donyo Eburru
Restaurants in Nakuru
Nakuru has a variety of restaurants that you will always want to come back to due to their excellent services as well as finger licking meals. Let’s take a look at some of these restaurants:
The Merica Hotel along Kenyatta Avenue is the best place when looking for foreign and vintage dishes such as Italian or Mexican food. The customer care services are second to none. It’s a great place for kids as well since you get pizza, French fries or burgers.
If you’re looking for Kenyan cuisine, Taidy’s Hotel would be your best bet. It is located in the town area and in the busy shelves of the town. Though it’s undergoing renovation, it’s a great restaurant/pub where you can get “pilau”, fish or “ugali”.
Lastly, if you’re looking for a serene spot with a great view of the Lake Nakuru as well as a cool ambiance, then Oyster Shell in Milimani is the place for you. The Indian-filled menu is a great adventure especially if you have never tasted the legendary “nan” which is a family favorite.
The Java House brand has been in the restaurant game for decades, spreading its branches to as far as Rwanda. Even with stiff competition, the Java brand has been able to set itself apart and still remain relevant. In Nakuru, there are two Java restaurants. One at West Side Mall and the other at the centre of the CBD, at the C.K Patel building.
The most loved bit about Java House is its consistency in making good food, in-house beverages and pastries. The taste in Java foods is specific to them even when you visit a branch out of town. Their customer service is also on point and the ambience in both spots is cool and relaxed. It is a perfect place for anyone that enjoys taking time eating. Their free Wi-Fi makes them all the more enticing.
When you mention Ipiz to a Nakuru local, chances are, it is among their favourite places to grab lunch. What makes Ipiz stand out so much is their expertise in making local foods. The Pilau and Chicken Stew at this place it worth every coin. Although it is an indoor restaurant, Ipiz still is worth the visit. The only downside is that the place is almost always fully packed, attesting to just how much of a favourite it is
Culture Mambo is fairly new to the scene compared to the first two restaurants. However, that has not slowed it down at becoming an all-time favourite, especially for couples. Culture Mambo has a one of a kind setting with an outdoor eating space that comes to life at night. The string lights make the decorating aspects come together perfectly. There is good music throughout the day, helpful staff and enough space for solo and group guests. If you plan to visit Culture Mambo at night, make sure to carry a jacket or sweater, as it can get quite chilly.
Kentucky Fried Chicken is a well-known worldwide brand but it only came to Nakuru in 2018. However, since then, the restaurant serves thousands of visitors each day. With their delicious and unique way of making chicken, this is no surprise. KFC Nakuru is located within West Side Mall compound. It has an indoor and outdoor eating space and is a good spot for casual meals. It is also very kid-friendly with meals that are tailored to cater for them. Their ice cream is also a must-try.
Property market in Nakuru
In our residential sector analysis, we classified the various suburbs in Nakuru Town into two segments:
- High-End Segment – Consisting of prime suburbs in Nakuru Town such as; Milimani, Section 58 and Naka. Houses in these suburbs have price points of between Kshs 6.1 mn and Kshs 13.0 mn,
- Middle-Income Segment – Consisting of suburbs such as; Ngata, Free Area and Kiamunyi, and are characterized by both high and low-density houses, housing the middle class. Houses in this segment have price points of between Kshs 3.6 mn and Kshs 4.9 mn.
- Detached Units refer to stand-alone houses such as townhouses, maisonettes and bungalows, and,
- Apartments refer to a self-contained housing units occupying part of a building, also called flats.
The performance of the residential theme in Nakuru Town is as summarized below:
- High-End Segment
The high-end market segment in Nakuru Town comprises suburbs such as Milimani, Section 58, and Naka. These suburbs have both detached units and apartments. Exit prices for apartments and detached units in the segment stand at Kshs 62,094 per SQM and Kshs 107,466 per SQM, respectively. In terms of performance, apartments outperform detached units recording total returns of 11.7%, 4.9% points higher than detached units at 6.8%. The lower returns for detached units is due to the fact that they are less preferred as a result of high rental rates of Kshs 384 per SQM as compared to Kshs 300 per SQM for apartments and high price points at Kshs 107,466 per SQM, 73.1% more than apartments that have exit prices of Kshs 62,094 per SQM. This is attributable to detached units, which sit on relatively larger sizes of land. The high rental rates have thus led to lower occupancy rates of 68.8%, as compared to apartments at 88.2% and thus resulted in lower yields of on average 3.8%, as compared to 5.7% for apartments.
The performance of apartments and detached units in the high-end segment is as summarized below:
The main apartment typologies in the high-end market segment are 2 and 3-bed units. The average prices for 2 and 3-bed apartment units are Kshs 4.9 mn and Kshs 5.5 mn, respectively. These units have average monthly rents of Kshs 20,714 for 2-bed units and Kshs 30,833 for 3-bed units and average occupancy rates of 92.3% and 84.0%, respectively, translating to average rental yields of 4.3% and 5.7%, for 2 and 3-bed apartments, respectively. In terms of total return, 3-bed apartments in the high-end segment outperform 2-bed units, recording on average total returns of 13.8%, 4.2% points higher than returns of 9.6% for 2-beds. The higher returns for the 3-bed units are as a result of higher yields of 5.7%, 1.4% points higher than 4.3% for the 2-bed typologies. It is noted that 3-bed units attract higher yields due to higher rental rates per SQM of Kshs 333 as compared to Kshs 267 for 2-bed units, as property owners charge more rent per SQM for the extra space offered.
- Detached Units
Detached units in the High End market in Nakuru Town are few, with only 4 notable developments in areas such as Milimani and London. Detached units in the area have an average total return of 6.8% with average rental yields and price appreciation of 3.8% and 3.0%, respectively. Annualized uptakes for detached 3-bed units is 21.5%. Meaning that developers can exit from a development in 5 years. On average developments have 73 units, meaning that developers can sell 14- 17 units a year.
- Mid-End Market Segment
The mid-end segment consists of estates such Ngata, Kiamunyi and Free Area. The area mainly comprises of apartments. This segment recorded an annual uptake of 39.7%, 16.8% points higher than the high-end segment at 22.9%, attributable to mid-end apartments affordability as they are 18.6% cheaper than in the high-end segment, with a price per SQM of Kshs 50,530, against an average of Kshs 62,094 per SQM for high-end apartments.
- Nakuru Town Residential Sector Performance Summary
In terms of overall market performance, the residential sector in Nakuru recorded on average total returns of 8.8%, with apartments and detached units having total returns of on average 10.7% and 6.8%, respectively. The lower returns for detached units can be attributed to a slower price appreciation of 3.8%, 1.6% points lower than 5.4% for apartments, as developers are sceptical about raising prices in attempt to boost sales and due to slow annualized uptakes of 21.5%, 9.8% point lower than apartments at 31.3%.
Additionally, standalone units record lower occupancy rates of 68.8%, 22.3% points lower than 91.0% for apartments since the market prefers apartments as they attract lower rental rates thus more affordable with rents at on average Kshs 23,970, 56.4% lower than detached at Kshs 55,000.
Factors driving real estate market in Nakuru town
The main factors driving the real estate market in Nakuru Town are:
- Positive Economic Growth – According to the World Bank Survey 2015, Nakuru County GDP per Capita stands at USD 1,413, which is 4th highest in Kenya after Kiambu, Nyeri and Kajiado, which have GDP per capita of USD 1,785, USD 1,503 and USD 1,466, respectively. In addition, the county recorded a 10-year GDP growth rate of 5.1% p.a, driven by the industrial sector, tourism, trade, energy and agriculture, thus higher per capita income that increases demand for real estate in Nakuru Town.
- Devolution – Devolution has opened up Nakuru Town and has placed an onus on the County Government to improve its real estate landscape. This has attracted entrepreneurs, private investors and government institutions such as public service boards to the county headquarters and thus created demand for housing units, retail spaces and office spaces, which host investors and government officials.
- Positive Demographics – Nakuru Town has a high population growth rate of on average 3.1% per annum, compared to a Kenyan average of 2.6%, which leads to sustained demand for real estate developments. Currently, Nakuru County has a population of 1,891,739. This creates demand for real estate developments, as the population seeks to purchase residential units as well as demand commercial and retail facilities.
- Infrastructural Development – Nakuru Town has seen increased focus on infrastructural development in the recent years. These projects are bound to open the town up for development. For instance, in 2018, the Kenya Urban Roads Authority (KURA) announced plans to upgrade 22 km of roads within the town. The project will link suburbs in the town including Naka, Industrial Area, Bondeni, Free Area and Mwariki. Additionally, in 2017, the County Government of Nakuru announced plans to upgrade Lanet Airstrip, to a fully-fledged airport that would accommodate huge passenger and cargo planes, details of completion timelines are yet to be disclosed. These initiatives will improve accessibility to the town and thus open it up to real estate development.
The town faces a few challenges which if not properly addressed would pose a challenge to real estate development. They include:
- Infrastructure Development – Despite the growth of infrastructure and having several projects in the pipeline, some areas in Nakuru Town are still faced with inadequate infrastructure characterized by earth roads and undeveloped sewer systems in areas such as; Kaptembwa, Free Area and Lanet making it expensive to develop in these areas,
- Access to Funding – As is the case in other areas in Kenya, access to funding for development is one of the constraints facing the real estate sector in Nakuru Town. The banking amendment act that led to the capping of interest rates at 13.0%, as at July 2018, has resulted in a decline in private sector credit growth rate to 2.4% as at April 2018 from a 5-year average of 14.0%. The decline, which is attributable to structural reforms and a strict adherence to prudential guidelines in terms of loan book quality and adequate provisioning has locked out private stakeholders in the real estate sector and developers, thus limited construction activities in areas across the country, including Nakuru Town,
- Inadequate Planning – Inadequate planning that has been caused by limited adherence to key policies that guide planning in Nakuru Town and if unchecked, this will lead to reduced land use maximization and urban sprawl.
- Pollution- this mostly occurs in the form of sewer bursts due to overpopulation in some areas, which exposes residents to diseases.
Why you should buy a house in Nakuru
Nakuru is fast becoming one of the ideal places to live in away from the busy Nairobi and Mombasa.
It presents a lot of great things from the growing job opportunities, better roads and wonderful places you can visit.
Here are some of the key benefits of purchasing a house or plot in Nakuru:
- Lots of great places to live in: As stated earlier in the post, there isn’t much distance between the Town and some of the smaller villages on the outskirts. So you can choose to live centrally, perhaps in a flat. Or you can decide to live a little out of the way, in a more rural neighborhood like the quiet Rongai.
- Boosted Economy: There have been a lot of investments in Nakuru lately in the last 5 years. Residents have noticed new, modern buildings go up month after month. And this is a good sign of a strong economy. With more office buildings and other outlets, there are lots of opportunities created. Which makes it an appealing place to live.
- In 6 words “It’s a Great Place to Live”: From the Menengai Crater, the views of Mt Longonot, Lake Naivasha a few KM away and Nakuru National Park also a few KM away from home I truly believe this is one of the finest places to live in the country. Which is the main reason you should buy a property here, so you can experience this for yourself? There’s more to this place than this blog post actually.
- Affordable housing market: The property market in Nakuru is not yet exaggerated like Nairobi and Mombasa. From flats and terraces, to detached and semi-detached houses and land.